Înțelesul "lithotripsy" în dicționarul Engleză
Artikel Epidemiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and LC Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD is a chronic condition that narrows the inflamed aerial pathways and destroys the alveoli. It is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and it is estimated that it will be the third cause of death untilafter ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular diseases.
Other possible risk factors may be abnormal sensitivity or an exaggerated response to several stimuli such as inhaled substances or other types of exposure—passive smoking, use of solid fuels, exposure to environmental dust, workplace organic materials, or air pollution 2.
In developed countries, the prevalence is between 7. Exposure to cigarette smoke induces a further increase in the risk of developing COPD when other risk factors are present 4.
The incidence of COPD was higher in rural areas inand males were more frequently affected 5. Smoking continues to be alongside other risk factors the leading cause for the presence of COPD in Romania too. Also, in our country, the consumption of electronic cigarettes has led to the increase of COPD cases over the last two years.
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Long-term epidemiological studies should be conducted to discover the effects of other substances found in these cigarettes as well as the impact that these heated substances have on the lungs prostate stone removal surgery other organs. Both in COPD and lung cancer LCexposure to cigarette prostate stone removal surgery and other emissions represents the main risk factor for the onset of the two diseases.
Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress, caused by various emissions in the lung tissue, precede the development of dysplasia that can evolve to carcinoma in situ and LC.
Active and passive smoking cessation and discontinuation of exposure to the pollutants is necessary at any time in life to prevent their harmful effect on the respiratory epithelium. The prevalence of LC is ~2. Incidence and mortality through LC typically show a rapid expansion around the world. The LC incidence varies proportionally with tobacco consumption and air quality in the population.
The explanation is elaborate, and it reflects both the age of the population and the continuous ageing process. Regarding LC, some of the changes in prevalence and risk factor distribution are associated with socioeconomic development.
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Men all over the world are more affected by LC 7. In the last century, LC has become one of the most common neoplasms for both genders and the most common cause of oncological death around the world. Because of the growing number of new LC cases, from 22 cases published into in and up to prostate stone removal surgery. LC is the prostatita cronică în remisie most common malignant disease in the world after prostate cancer in men and breast cancer in women 9.
The LC prostate stone removal surgery in Romania is included in the incidences of the South Eastern area of Europe and calculated by extrapolation based on the values obtained from the surrounding areas. Globally, there are only a few states that have cancer registers.
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Only one in four countries reports accurate data regarding incidence and mortality by cancer For the rest of the country, indices are calculated according to neighbouring countries and isolated studies published by health specialists. The existence of an LC register would bring more benefits.
First, the possession of accurate data on LC would lead to the development of prevention strategies, early diagnosis methods, and treatment options that would lead to a decrease in incidence and mortality benefits for both patient and health system by generating lower costs in supporting these patients.
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Diagnosis of LC and COPD COPD should be considered as a possible diagnosis in any patient at risk for the disease smokers, patients with exposure to air pollutants, or biomass such as solid fuelswith chronic productive cough and dyspnoea. It combines the severity of symptoms, the risk of exacerbations, and the patient's comorbidities. LC may be one of the comorbidities of COPD, and therefore, we must actively seek it in these patients.
Usually, patients with LC present respiratory symptoms, general symptoms, or symptoms that are the expression of other organ damage and may thus indicate the extension of the disease.
The most common symptoms are cough, chest pain, dyspnoea, haemoptysis, dysphonia, and weight loss. A meta-analysis published in reveals that the symptoms encountered with the prostate stone removal surgery frequency in studies, with significant value for the diagnosis of LC, are haemoptysis and dyspnoea, followed by cough, chest pain, and weight loss Unfortunately, many patients with LC are still diagnosed in advanced stages of the disease, when palliative treatment remains the only therapeutic option.
The importance of a multidisciplinary team gets more and more recognised in diagnostic centres. All physicians have a role in establishing the diagnosis and providing treatment as quickly as possible.
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The goal is to improve both the patient's quality of life and their survival. The general practitioner has the first contact with the patient; the pulmonologist initiates investigations, the radiologist assists with diagnosis and staging, the bronchologist and pathologist make staging and histopathologic diagnosis possible, and the surgeon and oncologist contribute to diagnosis and treatment; thus, all practitioners have an essential impact.
The first investigation that raises concern for the diagnosis of LC remains the thoracic chest X-ray.
Chest CT with intravenous IV contrast completed with cerebral, cervical, abdominal, and pelvic examinations for a complete prostate stone removal surgery represents the essential imaging technique used for the diagnosis of LC. AF uses a blue light source and can highlight dysplastic or minimally invasive lesions.
NBI shows the pathologic thickness of the mucosa and indicates which is the best region for performing the biopsy. The sensitivity of these techniques increases when used together.
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AF and NBI are also used to asses edges after surgical resections In the case of a suspected pleural tumour, liquid and pleural biopsy have an essential role in establishing the diagnosis and confirming the neoplastic aetiology. Accurate staging is crucial when choosing the proper treatment. Surgical techniques proved to be useful in patients in which less invasive investigations are not an option.
The most common histological types of LC are also the most studied. Adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma occupy the first place, followed by large cell carcinoma, which is rarer than the first two.
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In recent years, biomarker testing and genetic profiling used to determine immunotherapy sensitivity have developed Prostate stone removal surgery reference centres for LC diagnosis, appropriate resources are available for this kind of analysis. In selected cases, targetted therapy and immunotherapy are recommended. A heavy smoker patient or a patient with exposure to noxious will delay the medical consult because most of the symptoms are identical with the ones in chronic bronchitis caused by exposure to polluting agents.
The appearance of other symptoms, such as haemoptysis, chest pain, weight loss, or fatigue, increases the chances of presentation. In this situation, conducting a chest X-ray can bring new elements for diagnosis and guide further on the investigation plan.
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If COPD is the diagnosis, then appropriate bronchodilator treatment according to the stage of the disease. Periodic revaluation by clinic exam, spirometry, and chest X-ray is mandatory. If the symptomatology worsens or other symptoms appear, early presentation for further investigations is vital for immediate diagnosis and treatment of LC, with increased chances of survival and preservation prostate stone removal surgery the quality of life.
There are situations when CT images are highly suggestive for a tumour, although there is no endobronchial expression. These cases prostate stone removal surgery EBUS or surgical biopsy techniques. Multiple previous studies have determined that the severity of the airflow obstruction in COPD is an independent risk factor for LC.
The presence of chronic bronchitis in early pulmonary carcinogenicity was demonstrated by studies, with a latency period of ~ 15 years between the diagnosis of chronic bronchitis and the development of LC In some studies, LC appears to be more common in patients with a recently diagnosed COPD than in those with longstanding obstructive airway disease, and it may be 2—3 times more common in patients with a mild-to-moderate obstruction than in those with more advanced disease More mechanisms would seem to explain the relation between Prostatita cum să o recunoaștem and LC: genetic susceptibility, DNA damage and abnormal repair, chronic inflammation, and a favourable milieu.
In essence, only a minority of smokers develop any of these diseases, while at the same time, most are spared, and also susceptibility has a hereditary component